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Venus

Venus is the second terrestrial planet from the sun.

Orbital period

224.7 Earth days  Venus's orbit is the closest to circular, with an eccentricity of less than 0.01.  I

t makes the closest approach to Earth of any planet.

Rotation

All the planets of the Solar System orbit the Sun in an anti-clockwise direction whereas Venus alone rotates clockwise (called "retrograde" rotation) once every 243 Earth days—the slowest rotation period of any planet. Because its rotation is so slow, it is highly spherical.

To an observer on the surface of Venus, the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east.

Venus "overtakes" Earth every 584 days as it orbits the Sun. As it does so, it changes from the "Evening Star", visible after sunset, to the "Morning Star", visible before sunrise.

Satellites

It has no natural satellite.

Etymology

It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

Sobriquet

Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun and bulk composition.

Brightness

Venus is always brighter than any star (apart from the Sun).

Atmosphere

It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide.

Temperature

With a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, even though Mercury is closer to the Sun.

Atmospheric pressure

The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth's.

Magnetism

Venus has no planetary magnetic field.

  1. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky.
  2. Venus has no carbon cycle that puts carbon into rock, nor does it seem to have any organic life to absorb carbon in biomass.
  3. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light.
  4. It may have possessed oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect.
  5. The water has most probably photo-dissociated, and because of the lack of a, the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind.
  6. Venus' surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically refreshed by volcanism.

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