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Earth(Gaia, World, Terra)

The densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.


4.5 billion years ago


Seventy-one percent of Earth's surface is covered with water, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.


Earth's rotates in an anticlockwise direction.

Orbital period

 Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 150 million kilometers every 365.2564 mean solar days, or one sidereal year.

Because Earth's solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal acceleration, each day varies between 0 and 2 SI ms longer.

Axis of rotation

Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular of its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days).


One natural satellite: Moon;

1070 operational artificial satellites; 21000 pieces of debris over 10 cm in size (as of 24 October 2013).


It began orbiting Earth about 4.53 billion years ago.

The Moon's gravitational interaction with Earth stimulates ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt and gradually slows the planet's rotation.


The atmospheric pressure on Earth's surface averages 101.325 kPa

It has a composition of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with trace amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules.

Escape velocity

11.186 km/s

Average orbital speed

29.78 km/s

Equatorial rotation velocity

1,674.4 km/h (465.1 m/s)


Mean radius: 6371.0 km

Equatorial radius 6378.1 km(Longest)

Polar radius 6356.8 km

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