|Carbohydrates||Essential structural components of living cells and source of energy for animals. Carbohydrates are essential in formation of amino acids and fatty acids.|
Carbohydrates are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Hydrogen and Oxygen are composed in the same ratio as water(2:1).
Carbohydrates are broadly classified into two groups,
Glucose is absorbed directly by the body, without any breakdown. Galactose and fructose are converted into glucose by liver, before their utilization by body cells.
Surplus glucose is converted and stored in the form of glycogen and fat by liver, muscles, and fat cells.
Hydrolysis breaks glycogen to form glucose monomers.
Polysaccharides either serve as storage material(glycogen) or forms building material(cellulose, chitin etc..) for organisms' structures.
Oligosaccharides: carbohydrates containing between two and ten monosaccharide units linked together.
Disaccharides(double sugars) - formed by combination of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond.
These complex sugars are broken down into simple sugars before their absorption.
|Dietary sources||Fruits, cereals and all starch foods.|