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Microscope

an instrument used to magnify small objects or organisms, often used in biology and medicine

Telescope

an instrument used to observe distant objects, such as stars and planets

Spectrophotometer

an instrument used to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths, often used in chemistry and physics

Centrifuge

an instrument used to separate different components of a mixture based on density, often used in biology and chemistry

pH meter

an instrument used to measure the acidity or basicity of a solution, often used in chemistry and biology

Thermometer

an instrument used to measure temperature, often used in physics, chemistry, and meteorology

Barometer

an instrument used to measure air pressure, often used in meteorology

Seismometer

an instrument used to measure earthquakes, often used in geology

Hydrometer

an instrument used to measure the density of liquids, often used in chemistry and biology

Balances and scales

 instruments frequently used in scientific research and experiments.

Oscilloscope

a device for viewing oscillations by a display on the screen of a cathode ray tube

Chromatograph

an apparatus for performing chromatography.

Electroscope

an instrument for detecting and measuring electricity, especially as an indication of the ionization of air by radioactivity.

Bunsen burner

a small adjustable gas burner used in laboratories as a source of heat.

Microtome

an instrument for cutting extremely thin sections of material for examination under a microscope.

Refractometer

an instrument for measuring a refractive index.

Geiger counter

a device for measuring radioactivity by detecting and counting ionizing particles.

Interferometer

an instrument in which wave interference is employed to make precise measurements of length of displacement in terms of the wavelength.

Mass spectrometer

an apparatus for measuring the masses of isotopes, molecules, and molecular fragments by ionizing them and determining their trajectories in electric and magnetic fields.

Polarimeter

an instrument for measuring the polarization of light, and especially for determining the effect of a substance in rotating the plane of polarization of light.

X-ray diffractometer

An X-ray diffractometer, or XRD machine, is a device for analyzing and measuring the structure of materials from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles interacts with it.

Atomic force microscope

Atomic force microscope is a type of scanning probe microscope with a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy, with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. AFM can be used to image the topography of soft biological materials in their native environments, to probe the mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices, including their intrinsic elastic modulus and receptor-ligand interactions etc.

Ultracentrifuge

a very fast centrifuge used to precipitate large biological molecules from solution or separate them by their different rates of sedimentation.

Scanning electron microscope

an electron microscope in which the surface of a specimen is scanned by a beam of electrons that are reflected to form an image.

Transmission electron microscope

a form of electron microscope in which an image is derived from electrons which have passed through the specimen, in particular one in which the whole image is formed at once rather than by scanning.

Fluorescence microscope

an optical microscope that uses fluorescence instead of, or in addition to, scattering, reflection, and attenuation or absorption, to study the properties of organic or inorganic substances.

Infrared spectrophotometer

an analytical instrument used to identify materials including organic polymers. Infrared spectrophotometers record the relative amount of energy as a function of the wavelength/frequency of the infrared radiation when it passes through a sample.

Raman spectrophotometer

A device which uses an analytical technique where scattered light is used to measure the vibrational energy modes of a sample. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining chemical species.

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

An NMR instrument allows the molecular structure of a material to be analyzed by observing and measuring the interaction of nuclear spins when placed in a powerful magnetic field.

Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer is a device for studying materials that have unpaired electrons. EPR spectroscopy is particularly useful for studying metal complexes and organic radicals.

X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

an x-ray instrument used for routine, relatively non-destructive chemical analyses of rocks, minerals, sediments and fluids.

Auger electron spectrometer

a form of electron spectroscopy that relies on the Auger effect, based on the analysis of energetic electrons emitted from an excited atom after a series of internal relaxation events. It is used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials science.

Secondary ion mass spectrometer

a device used to analyze compositions of thin films and surfaces by using a focused primary ion beam to sputter the surface of a sample and analyze the ejected secondary ions.

Time-of-flight mass spectrometer

a mass analyser that utilises an electric field to accelerate generated ions through the same electrical potential, and then measures the time each ion takes to reach the detector.

Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer

is a device using the technique which is used to obtain infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, and photoconductivity of solid, liquid, and gas.

Nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer

is a device used for chemical analysis technique related to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

is a powerful analytical technique that can be used to detect and characterize materials.

Confocal microscope

is a device utilizing a technique that uses lasers and fluorescence to create a three-dimensional image of a sample.

Acoustic microscope

an instrument that uses sound waves to produce an enlarged image of a small object

Scanning probe microscope

 is an instrument used for studying surfaces at the nanoscale level.

Atomic absorption spectrophotometer

is used to analyze metal samples by determining the presence and concentration of metals in a liquid or solid samples.

Inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer

is a tool for trace detection of metals in solution, in which a liquid sample is injected into argon gas plasma contained by a strong magnetic field.

X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer

also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), is a mature and widely used surface analysis technique for materials characterisation.

Laser Doppler velocimeter

measures local, instantaneous fluid velocities by detecting the frequency of light scattered by small particles suspended in the fluid as they pass through a fringe or interference pattern.

Particle size analyzer

uses laser diffraction technology to measure the size of particles in both liquid dispersions and dry powders in the micro and millimeter range.

Zeta potential analyzer

is used to measure particle and molecular size from less than a nanometre to several microns using dynamic light scattering and Zeta Potential by using electrophoretic light scattering.

Flow cytometer

is an instrument used to analyze and quantify cells and their properties, such as cell viability, cell size, etc.

Laser confocal scanner

is a device used for optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation

Atomic clock

is a clock that measures time by monitoring the resonant frequency of atoms. It is based on atoms having different energy levels.

Gravimeter

is the measuring instrument of gravitational field of the Earth at specific location. The instrument works on the principle of measuring the constant downward acceleration of gravity. There are two types of gravimeters: absolute and relative.

Magnetometer

instrument for measuring the strength and sometimes the direction of magnetic fields, including those on or near the Earth and in space.

Seismograph

instrument that makes a record of seismic waves caused by an earthquake, explosion, or other Earth-shaking phenomenon.

Torsion balance

device used to measure the gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface.

Particle accelerator

 is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defined beams.

Synchrotron

is a cyclotron wherein the strength of the magnetic field increases with the energy of particles to maintain their orbital radius constant. It's an incredibly powerful source of X-rays. These are generated by high electrons moving in a large circle of the synchrotron.

Neutron diffractometer

a device used for investigating the structure of condensed matter.

Neutron spectrometer

measures the atomic and magnetic motions of atoms.

Laser interferometer

measures the resulting distance by splitting a laser beam into two, sending each of the two beams along different directions in space (each along one of the two arms of the detector), and then recombining the beams.

Particle detector

device for detecting, measuring, and analyzing particles and other forms of radiation entering it.

Cosmic ray detector

is a scientific installation built to detect high-energy-particles coming from space called cosmic rays

Gamma ray spectrometer

is an instrument for measuring the distribution of the intensity of gamma radiation versus the energy of each photon.

Gamma ray telescope

is an instrument designed to detect and resolve gamma rays from sources outside Earth's atmosphere.

X-ray telescope

is a telescope that is designed to observe remote objects in the X-ray spectrum.

Ultraviolet telescope

is a telescope used to examine the ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, between the portion seen as visible light and the portion occupied by X-rays.

Infrared telescope

is a telescope that uses infrared light to detect celestial bodies.

Radio telescope

is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to detect radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky.

Solar telescope

is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun. Solar telescopes usually detect light with wavelengths in, or not far outside, the visible spectrum.

Cosmic microwave background detector

is a device to detect the microwave radiation that fills all space.

Gravitational wave detector

is any device designed to measure tiny distortions of spacetime called gravitational waves.

Acoustic detector

detects vehicles by the sound created as the vehicle passes. It can collect counts for one or more travel lanes.

Radar

is a radiolocation system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (ranging), angle, and radial velocity of objects relative to the site.

Sonar

is a device that uses sound waves to detect objects.

Acoustic Doppler current profiler

is a device that uses sound waves to measure the speed and direction of currents throughout the water column.

Current meter

 is an oceanographic device for flow measurement by mechanical, tilt, acoustical or electrical means.

Tidal gauge

 is a device for measuring the change in sea level relative to a vertical datum.

Wave buoy

measure wave height, period, and direction to provide critical data for boaters and shipping vessels, researchers, offshore construction managers or any other application where wave data is of interest. Buoys are commonly used in drifting, tethering and mooring applications.

Weather balloon

also known as sounding balloon, is a balloon (specifically a type of high-altitude balloon) that carries instruments aloft to send back information on atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity and wind speed by means of a small, expendable measuring device called a radiosonde.

Dropsonde

 is a weather device that is designed to be dropped out of an aircraft at specified altitudes and due to the force of gravity, drop to the Earth.

Radiosonde

is a small instrument package that is suspended below balloon filled with either hydrogen or helium. As the radiosonde is carried aloft it measures pressure, temperature, and relative humidity.

LIDAR

is a popular remote sensing method used for measuring the exact distance of an object on the earth’s surface.

Scintillation counter

 is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillating material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.

Photomultiplier

is a device that converts incident photons into an electrical signal.

Photodiode

 is a light-sensitive semiconductor diode.

Phototransistor

 is an electronic switching and current amplification component which relies on exposure to light to operate.

Solar cell

is an electronic device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

Solar spectrograph

is an instrument that captures radiation from the sun and separates this radiation into its individual wavelengths.

Solar telescope

is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun. Solar telescopes usually detect light with wavelengths in, or not far outside, the visible spectrum. Obsolete names for Sun telescopes include heliograph and photoheliograph.

Solar magnetograph

an instrument allowing detailed observation of the Sun's magnetic field.

Solar ultraviolet imager

is a telescope that monitors the sun in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range. By observing the sun, SUVI is able to compile full disk solar images around the clock.

Solar X-ray monitor

provides the real time solar X-ray spectrum which is essential to interpret the quantitative elemental composition of the Moon from the orbiting satellite by the companion instrument Chandra's Large Area Soft x-ray Spectrometer (CLASS - developed at ISAC, Bangalore).

Solar proton monitor

provide continuous long- term monitoring of the energetic protons emitted by the sun.

Solar electron monitor

provide continuous long- term monitoring of the energetic electrons emitted by the sun.

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