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Title

Symbol

Facts

National flag

Flag of India

Adoption

22 July 1947

Shape

Horizontal rectangular tricolor flag.

History

The flag is based on the Swaraj flag designed by Pingali Venkayya.

Design

    1. The length of the flag is 1.5 times that of the width i.e. a ratio of two by three.
    2. All three stripes equal in width and length; Saffron at the top, white in the middle and India green at the bottom.
    3. The size of Ashoka Chakra is not defined but it must have 24 spokes and is to be printed on both sides of the flag in navy blue colour.

    National emblem

    National Emblem of India

    Adoption

    26 January 1950. Adopted from the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath.

    Design

    Adopted into the present form by Madhav Sawhney.

    History

    The capital was erected by Ashoka to mark the spot where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma and where the Buddhist Sangha was founded.

    Features

    Three lions are visible. There is a dharma chakra at the centre. A bull and a horse is visible in the abacus.

    A Motto is inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: "Satyameva jayate" taken from Mundaka Upanishad.

    Usage

    Emblem is regulated and restricted under State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005.


    Actual emblem:

    Four Asiatic lions standing back to back  symbolizes the power, courage, pride, and confidence.

    The abacus is girded with a frieze of sculptures in high relief of an elephant (of the east), a bull (of the west), a horse (of the south), and a lion (of the north), separated by intervening wheels, over a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration. At its centre it has a beautiful wheel (Dharma chakra).

    Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).

    Difference between Actual and Adopted emblem:

    Actual emblem

    Adopted emblem

       

    Four Asiatic lions stand back to back

    Only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view.

    At the bottom it has an elephant, a bull, a horse and a lion.

    Only the horse and bull are visible while the other two being hidden from view.

    There is a bell shaped lotus beneath the abacus

    Bell-shaped lotus beneath the abacus is absent.

    National calendar

    Saka calendar

    Adoption

    Chaitra 1, 1879, Saka Era, or March 22, 1957.

    History

    The calendar was developed by the Calendar Reform Committee in 1957.

    Facts

    The names of the months are derived from ancient Hindu lunisolar calendar.

    In leap years, Chaitra has 31 days and starts on March 21 instead.

    To determine leap years, add 78 days to the Saka year.

    Calendar structure:

    Sl. No.

    Month (Sanskrit)

    Length

    Start date (Gregorian)

    Tropical zodiac

    1

    Chaitra

    30/31

    March 22

    Aries

    2

    Vaishākha

    31

    April 21

    Taurus

    3

    Jyēshtha

    31

    May 22

    Gemini

    4

    Āshādha

    31

    June 22

    Cancer

    5

    Shrāvana

    31

    July 23

    Leo

    6

    Bhaadra

    31

    August 23

    Virgo

    7

    Āshwin

    30

    September 23

    Libra

    8

    Kārtika

    30

    October 23

    Scorpio

    9

    Agrahayana

    30

    November 22

    Sagittarius

    10

    Pausha

    30

    December 22

    Capricorn

    11

    Māgha

    30

    January 21

    Aquarius

    12

    Phalguna

    30

    February 20

    Pisces

    National anthem

    Jana Gana Mana

    Adoption

    24 January 1950.

    Composer

    Rabindranath Tagore.

    Lyrics

    Originally written in Sanskritised (Tatsama) Bengali.

    Hindi Translation

    Translated into Hindi-Urdu by Abid Ali.

    English translation

    Translated into English by Rabindranath Tagore.

    Formal rendition of the national anthem

    52 seconds.

    Shortened version of rendition of the national anthem

    20 seconds.

    National song

    Vande Mataram

    Adoption

    24 January 1950

    Composer

    Bankim Chandra Chatterjee(In his 1882 novel Anandamath).

    Song

    The original Vande Mataram consists of six stanzas.

    Lyrics

    Originally written in Bengali.

    Translation

    Aurobindo Ghose(first appeared in Karmayogin, 20 November 1909).

    History

    It was first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.

    In 1950 (after India's independence), the song's first two verses were given the official status of the "national song" of the Republic of India.

    Oath of allegiance

    National Pledge

    Adoption

    26 January 1965

    Composer

    P. V. Subba Rao in 1962.

    History

    Initially composed in Telugu language. It was first read out in a school in Visakhapatnam in 1963.

    National river

    Ganga

    Fact: Ganga is the longest river of India with the most heavily populated river basin in the world. The river is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth.

    National animal

    Royal Bengal Tiger

    Scientific name: Panthera tigris

    Fact: It is the largest carnivore is found only in the Indian subcontinent and can be found in most regions of the country.

    National aquatic animal

    River Dolphin

    Name: Gangetic dolphin

    Scientific name: Platanista gangetica

    Fact: It is said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga Riveras it can only survive in pure and fresh water.

    National bird

    Indian Peacock

    Scientific name: Pavo cristatus

    Fact: It is indigenous to India. Peacock represents the unity of vivid colors and finds references in Indian culture.

    National flower

    Indian lotus

    Scientific name: Nelumbo nucifera

    Fact: It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture.

    National fruit

    Mango

    Scientific name: Mangifera indica

    Fact: Originated in India and the country is home to more than 100 varieties of the fruit.

    National tree

    Indian Banyan

    Scientific name: Ficus bengalensis

    Fact: They root themselves to form new trees and grow over large areas. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.

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