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History

Ancient and Medieval India

Year

Event

2,000,000 - 100,000 BC

A skull fragment found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistoceneera around 250,000 years ago

7500 BC

Sangam periodbegins in Tamil nadu.

Early Neolithic culturebegins in the Indian Subcontinent in Bhirrana in Haryana.

7000 BC

Later Neolithic culturebegins in Mehrgarh currently in Balochistan, Pakistan.

3300 BC

Indus Valley Civilization begins.

2600 BC

The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises.

2600 BC

Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.

2500 BC

Dravidian Civilization begins in South India.

1900 BC

Late Harappan Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins, including Cemetery H culture and other cultures.

1800 BC

Beginning of Iron Age in India.

1700 BC

Indus Valley Civilizationcomes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture.

1500 BC

Early Vedic Period begins.

1300 BC

Cemetery H culturecomes to an end.

1200 BC

Composition of Rigveda.

1000 BC

Middle and Late Vedic period begins.

Iron Age kingdoms takes shape.

877 BC

Birth of Parsvanath, 23rd Jain Tirthankara.

777 BC

Nirvanaof Parsvanath, 23rd Jain Tirthankara

700 BC

The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written.

600 BC

Sixteen Maha Janapadas  emerge.

599 BC

Birth of Mahavira, 24th Jain Tirthankara.

563 BC

Birth of Buddha(Siddhārtha Gautama).

527 BC

Nirvanaof Mahavira

483 BC

Mahaparinirvana of Gautama Buddha at Kushinagar.

400 BC

Siddhārtha Gautama(Buddha)founds Buddhism

350 BC

Panini, a resident of Gandhara, describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi.

Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit.

326 BC

Ambhiking of Taksashila surrenders to Alexander.

321 BC

Chandragupta Maurya establishes Mauryan Empireafter defeating the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire.

Mauryan capital city is Pataliputra.

305 BC

Chandragupta Mauryadefeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.

304 BC

Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants.

Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.

273 BC

Ashoka ascends the throne of Mauryan Empire.

265 BC

Kalinga Wartakes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.

261 BC

Conquest of Kalinga

260 BC

Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes non-violence and republicanism.

Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.

230 BC

Simukadeclares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.

200 BC

Tholkappiyam,the oldest existing Tamil grammar and morphology of the language was composed.

184 BC

The  by his general Pushyamitra Sunga. Pushyamitra Sunga then establishes the Sunga dynasty after  assassinating Brihadratha(last ruler of Mauryan empire)

180 BC

Establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom.

65 BC

The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.

57 BC

Beginning of Vikram Era

10

Establishment of the Indo-Parthian kingdom.

35

Western Satrapsformed.

68

Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.

78

Gautamiputra Satakarnibecomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar after defeating Scythian king Maues.

240

Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Pataliputra

320

Chandragupta Iascends the Gupta throne.

335

Samudraguptaascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.

380

Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.

450

Huna invasions.

554

Collapse of Gupta Empire after the death of Skandagupta.

753

Establishment of Rashtrakuta Kingdom of Manyakheta by Danti Durga by defeating Chalukyas of Badami

788

Birth of Adi Shankaracharya

985

Rajaraja Cholaascends to the throne of Chola empire. He expands the empire to Sri Lanka and to the north to include Kalinga kingdom

1000

Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni

1014

Rajendra Chola Ibecame the king of Chola empire after his father Rajaraja Chola.

Rajendra’s territories extended coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula in South East Asia) and Peguislands with his fleet of ships.

He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram.

The Cholas became one of the most powerful dynasties in Asia during his reign.

The Tamil Chola armies exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia.

Rajendra Chola I was the first Indian king to take his armies overseas and make conquests of these territories, even though there is epigraphical evidence of Pallava presence in these very areas.

1021

Mahmud Ghaznidefeats Tarnochalpal and annexes Punjab

1025

Last invasion of Mahmud Ghazni, sacked and destroyed temple of Somnath

1030

Alberuniarrives in India; death of Mahmud of Ghazni

1190

Mohammed Ghauri invades India.

1206

Qutb-ud-din Aibakestablishes Ghulam Dynasty later to be known as Delhi Sultanate

1210

Qutb-ud-din Aibakdied while playing polo.

1221

Genghis Khaninvades Punjab

1323

Ulugh Khandefeats Prataparudra ending the Kakatiya dynasty

1336

Vijayanagara Empireestablished by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I

1347

Governor Hasan Gangu revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq founding the Bahmani Sultanate

1401

Dilawar Khanestablishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India

1407

Zafar Khan: governor of Gujarat, declares himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah founding the Gujarat Sultanate/Muzaffarid dynasty

1414

Khizr Khan, deputized by Timur to be the governor of Multan takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty

1451

Bahlul Khan Lodhiascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty

1469

Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism is born

1490

Ahmednagar declares independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year thus breaking up the Bahmani Sultanate.

1498

Vasco de Gama's first voyage from Europe to India.

1503

Kingdom of Kochi is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in India.

1522

Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast

1530

Babur completes his Baburnama.

Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.

1539

Battle of Chausa fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in which Humayun defeated.

1540

Battle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun was completely defeated. Humayun lost the Mughal empire to Afghans (Suri Dynasty), and passed 12 years in exile.

1555

Humayun regained the throne of Delhi from the hands of weak successors of Sher Shah.

1565

Battle of Talikotaresults in the rout of Vijayanagara empire.

1572

Akbar the Great annexes Gujarat, also shifts the Mughal capital to Fatehpur Sikri.

1574

Akbar annexes Bengal.

1586

Akbar annexes Kashmir.

1600

East India company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India.

1605

Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jahangir.

1606

Guru Hargobindbecomes sixth guru of Sikhs.